The beginnings of submarine – the first submarine boats were underwater, most often in the form of barrels, made of wood and leather. They were routed by oars of propellers operated. The first submarine of the type was build in 1776 and was called Turtle. It was powered by a propeller pedal a man and have the speed of 1 knot.
Turtle tried to attach a mine in British frigate Eagle in New York, but the plans failed. However, he managed to reach the vessel enemy without being detected, thus demonstrating that submarines could be used in war. Finding a suitable means of action – this was not easy in the past.
Electric motors for boats up had been designed in the 1830s and were suitable for driving a submersible vessel will not remove the gas and did not consume oxygen. However, electric motors have not brought complete answer, because the batteries needed to download quickly. In the 1860s it was designed electric batteries and rechargeable batteries called dynamos capable of recharging them. However, despite the fact that a submarine propelled by an electric batteries, it must be added as a motor for driving the dynamo.
Progress – a steam engine requires regular abundant food and air to burn fuel and a basket for removal of fumes and gases. The engine can be operated while the vessel was on the surface, but before diving, the crew has to seal the basket and shut the boilers.
This cause an unacceptable delay for a military ship must sink suddenly to avoid enemy. Also, the residual heat from the boiler temperature rise to unbearable levels. The answer seems to be gasoline engine, although a serious disadvantage of this is that volatile fuel vapors can explode easily. However, in 1900 many such vessels with petrol engines were used in naval operations.
Finally, Diesel engines have replaced gasoline engines in submarines. At first, the propulsion is by direct drive diesel engines of the vessel. Later, they introduced diesel-electric submarines operated. In this type of vessel, electric motors are used both on the surface and under water as, but use electric generators powered by diesel engines for recharging batteries.
Propulsion – all submarines, both as nuclear and diesel-electric ones, immersed the same. When preparing diving submarine fills its water immersion tanks until it is neutral in terms of carrying capacity. This înceamã that mean vessel density is the same water around him, that the vessel does not float nor sink, but only “stands” in the water. Because the submarine to descend, they guided down surfaces using immersion. They act like rudders, except that they control the up and down movement of the vessel. If a submarine must rise to the surface, he climbs up directing and submerged surfaces.
To return to the area for a longer period, a submarine uses compressed air to expel water immersion tanks. A nuclear submarine can stay under water for months, so shall contain large deposits of food. It required the presence of an air conditioner system that keeps air at a comfortable temperature, removes carbon dioxide and replaces it with oxygen. Oxygen is produced on board using an electric current to decompose sea water in its main components – hydrogen and oxygen. Waste water is stored in reservoirs that pumped water from time to time. Distil sea water to provide drinking water crew. Salted water boil, steam produced re cool to be converted into pure water, then close other container. Salt and other attributable to remain in the boiler.